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Water Kit

Water Kit

Amino Acid Starter Kit

Amino Acid Starter Kit

B-Globin Folding Kit

B-Globin Folding Kit

Insulin

Insulin Kit

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Water Kit<sup>&#169;</sup>

Water Kit©

Your students will feel bonds with these magnetic water molecules. Embedded magnets accurately reflect positive and negative charges, allowing your students to feel the various strengths of hydrogen, covalent and ionic bonds. They can explore the water cycle – even make ice. They also can show the differences between molecular adhesion, cohesion and capillary action and demonstrate surface tension, evaporation, condensation and solubility.

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NaCl Lattice©

A valuable companion to the Water Kit©, our NaCl magnetic molecules take salt crystal lessons a step further. Ion models have embedded magnets which allow students to simulate ionic bonding and demonstrate how salt cleaves off in planes. The sodium chloride lattices also help students explore the structure of salt crystals and learn about physical properties such as melting and boiling points, fragility, solubility and electrical behavior.

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Amino Acid Starter Kit©

In the first protein folding activity, your students will use the Amino Acid Starter Kit© to construct a generic 15-amino acid protein, as they explore the chemical interactions that drive each protein to fold into its specific 3D shape (primary and tertiary structure).

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ß-Globin Folding Kit©

Hemoglobin is the classic protein used to introduce quaternary protein structure, both because it is an important protein in the transport of oxygen throughout the body, but also because a single point mutation results in a prominent disease, sickle cell anemia. β-thalessemias are a group of diseases resulting from the underproduction, or total lack of production, of β-globin.

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ß-Globin Prefolded Model©

You can use our pre-folded mini toober model of ß-globin to demonstrate protein structure, the important role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport, and the lasting effects of a single amino acid mutation on a protein. Some teachers purchase it in conjunction with the B-Globin Folding Kit to use as a sample model. The model also reinforces lessons introduced in our Amino Acid Starter Kit©.

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Insulin mRNA to Protein Kit©

With this protein folding kit your students will investigate how insulin mRNA is translated by the ribosome into a precursor form of insulin, and how the precursor is processed to create the final protein structure. After using the kit’s bioinformatics map to search for the nucleotide sequence that encodes the amino acid sequence of insulin, students will fold a physical model of the 3D protein structure of insulin.

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Enzymes in Action Kit©

Our new foam protein kit introduces your students to enzymes. They will use the engaging foam model pieces and activities to identify the substances involved in enzymatic activity, explore how enzymatic reactions occur, demonstrate the catabolism and anabolism, and much more.

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Substrate Specificity Kit©

Students can use the Substrate Specificity Field Test Kit© to: Use color-coded functional groups to construct a substrate and examine its chemical properties. Use a mini toober to engineer an enzyme active site specific to the substrate constructed. Explore different types of specificity including stereochemical specificity and absolute specificity. Discover how subtle changes in enzyme structure can potentially have a significant impact on substrate binding in the active site.

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DNA Discovery Kit©

Armed with the nitrogenous bases, deoxyribose groups and phosphate groups, and the same facts that Watson and Crick had in 1953, your students will be able discover the structure of DNA for themselves. As your students manipulate the A-T and G-C base pairs in the magnetic DNA model, they will feel the simulated hydrogen bonding between the nucleotides and see the double helix emerge.

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DNA Starter Kit©

The DNA Starter Kit© is a schematic DNA model that transforms from the familiar ladder shape to the double helix with a twist. Your students can explore the structure of color-coded DNA bases showing purines and pyrimidines, which connect to a continuous sugar-phosphate backbone.

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Flow of Genetic Information Kit©

Our new Flow of Genetic Information Kit will let your students model DNA replication using color-coded, foam nucleotides and a placemat, model RNA transcription as they copy one strand of DNA into mRNA using an RNA polymerase and model protein synthesis/ translation as they decode the mRNA into protein on the ribosome placemat.

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Phospholipid and Membrane Transport Kit©

This new kit features the amphipathic structure of phospholipids – with their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Your students will explore the chemical structure of a phospholipid and then construct a phospholipid monolayer, a micelle and a bilayer leading to an understanding of the plasma membrane structure.

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Demo DNA Nucleotides©

You can use our large-scale, color-coded foam Demo DNA Nucleotides to introduce basic DNA concepts to your students before giving them the DNA Discovery Kit, DNA Starter Kit and/or Flow of Genetic Information Field Test Kit to explore the structure and function of DNA on their own. The set also works well for review.

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Neuron Modeling Kit©

Students can use the Neuron Modeling Kit to: Distinguish between multipolar neurons, bipolar neurons, unipolar neurons and interneurons, and determine their location and function in the human body. Construct a model and identify parts of a multipolar neuron. Use myelin sheath pieces to demonstrate differences between two types of neuroglia in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Construct simple and complex neural pathways and examine the overall effect on neuronal firing at excitatory and inhibitory synapses.

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Synapse Construction Kit©

Students can use the colorful foam pieces in the Synapse Construction Kit© to: Discover how the resting potential of a neuron is established. Demonstrate the propagation of an action potential down an axon. Simulate the action of the sodium-potassium pump in resetting the resting potential. Explore the effects of neurotransmitters acetylcholine, dopamine and GABA on on a post synaptic neuron. Model cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic synapses. Compare and constrast metabotropic and ionontropic receptors. Analyze the impact of various substances such as nicotine, cocaine, sarin gas and propofol on neuronal signaling. And much more!

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Map of the Human ß-Globin Gene©

Don’t just tell your students about triplet codons, reading frames, or introns and exons. Let them discover these eukaryotic gene features as they search the Map of the Human ß-Globin Gene©. Starting with the protein sequence, students will work backward to discover the ß-globin gene. The teacher’s map features highlighted reading frames and mutation sites, and comes with a CD that includes teachers’ notes, instructions, and student handout.

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Molecules of Life Collection©

The Molecules of Life Collection is a molecular model set featuring plaster models of the 4 main categories of large molecules found in all living things (biomolecules): carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Use the Molecules of Life Placemat and the accompanying models to explore several concepts, including how each of the structures is essential to sustain life and large biological polymers are composed of smaller building block monomers.

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Acetylcholinesterase Active Site Cube©

As your students unfold the Acetylcholinesterase Active Site Cube© they will see how the tightly-packed amino acid side chains bind the substrate (acetylcholine), and discover how 3 amino acids collaborate to cleave the neurotransmitter. The acetylcholinesterase gene and the protein it encodes can be used to demonstrate enzyme specificity, competitive inhibition, mutation, characteristics of the genetic code, alternate splice sites, natural selection, bioinformatics and disease transmission.

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Tour of a Human Cell©

The Panorama© and Grand Panorama© illustrate how DNA in the nucleus is wrapped around histones, which forms nucleosomes. RNA polymerase unwraps the DNA and makes mRNA, which is delivered through nuclear pore complexes to ribosomes where antibody proteins are made and delivered into the endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicles carry the protein through the Golgi, and kinesin motor proteins pull the antibodies to the cell membrane.

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E.Coli Poster©

This E. coli Poster© shows the inside of an E. coli cell – magnified 1 million times. The molecular complexity of this bacterial cell is emphasized in this image. It features a large flagellum and the motor proteins that power its rotation, and a variety of transmembrane proteins that function in transporting molecules into and out of the cell.

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Mitochondria Poster©

In our Mitochondria Poster© your students will see the large protein complexes of the electron transport chain, which create the electrochemical gradient that powers ATP synthase to build ATP. ATP is then transported out of the mitochondrion by the adenine nucleotide translocator, and diffuses through the channels in the VDAC protein in the outer membrane.

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Neuromuscular Synapse Poster©

The Synapse Poster© illustrates the connection between a nerve cell and a muscle, where vesicles filled with the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, fusing with the membrane of the pre-synaptic axon. Following vesicle fusion, the acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic space to bind to acetylcholine receptors found in the membrane of the muscle cell. Acetylcholinesterase breaks down excess neurotransmitter.

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Hemoglobin Nylon Model

Hemoglobin is made up of 4 subunits: 2 α-chains and 2 β-chains. One of the ß-chains along with the heme group and its oxygen on our 3D protein model are magnet-docked so they can be removed for closer examination. The glutamic acid side chain at position 6 of the ß-globin chain can be exchanged for a valine side chain – representing the change in the ß-globin protein that leads to sickle cell anemia. The model can be used to discuss quaternary structure, blood physiology, and the lasting effects of a single amino acid mutation on a protein.

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The Data Dilemma©

While using The Data Dilemma © your students will experience the problem scientists face when new information indicates the mental model of the object they are researching needs to be modified. As each new data set is introduced and your students form a series of new models — using foam tangram pieces — they will learn that the practice of science is an ongoing process, not a set of facts published in a textbook or online. How many possible models can your students find?

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Mystery Tube©

Research scientists frequently face the challenge of examining an object or organism without taking it apart. As your students first pull the cord on 1 end and the other end pulls into the tube, they will be challenged to describe a model for the inner workings of the Mystery Tube© and provide supporting evidence to defend their hypothesis. The solution is not provided since scientists are not provided with a solution after their first experiment.

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Modeling Mini Toobers

In our “15 Tacks and a 4-Foot Mini Toober” protein folding activity, your students will use 1 mini toober and blue, red, yellow, white, and green tacks to explore the chemical interactions that drive each protein to fold into its specific structure. The color-coded tacks represent the properties of the amino acids. There are many variations to this basic folding exercise.

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Amino Acid Building Block Models

This kit enables your students to build and compare 2 generic amino acids models using atoms, covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds. Atoms and side chains are represented by colored spheres; covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds are represented by sticks. After constructing and identifying the components of the 2 amino acids, they can be linked by a peptide bond to make a dipeptide – splitting out a water molecule.

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Phospholipid Modeling Set

These Molymod phospholipid models enable your students to explore the amphipathic structure of phospholipids, the most abundant lipids in membranes.

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Aquaporin Mini Model

Water molecules rapidly flow in single file through the aquaporin channel – a membrane-spanning protein. Aquaporin selectively binds water molecules and prevents other molecules from entering the channel. While the process is not fully understood, many researchers believe that the water molecules roll over as they bind with the first of 2 asparagine located at the narrowest part of the channel. Each water molecule then binds with the second asparagine before moving through the rest of the channel. Our Aquaporin Channel Mini Model separates to show water molecules passing through the channel.

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Green Fluorescent Protein Mini Model

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is responsible for the green bioluminescence of many marine organisms, including Pacific Northwest jellyfish. Scientists can fuse GFP with proteins from other organisms such as mice or zebra fish, to introduce fluorescence and trace the intra-cellular location of the other protein.

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Nucleosome Mini Model

The nucleosome is composed of 145 base pairs of double-stranded DNA wrapped around a central core of 8 histones – 2 each of: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. The N-terminus of each histone has many positively-charged amino acids that interact with the negatively-charged phosphate groups of the DNA backbone.

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Potassium Channel Mini Model

The potassium channel allows the rapid passage of potassium ions — but not sodium ions — across the membrane. This protein is made up of 4 identical subunits with a channel running through the center. Carbonyl oxygen atoms in the channel replace the water molecules that normally surround the hydrated potassium ion, allowing the ions to rapidly pass through the channel.

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Zinc Finger Mini Model

A zinc finger is a short (~30 amino acid) protein motif that is often found in proteins that bind to DNA. Use our 3D model of a zinc finger to discuss metal cofactors and common protein motifs.

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Insulin Mini Model

Insulin is a 51-amino acid peptide hormone made up of 2 chains (A and B) connected by 2 disulfide bonds. There is an additional disulfide bond between 2 cysteine amino acids on Chain A.

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ß-Globin Mini Models

ß-globin transports oxygen throughout our bodies. This protein has a ring-like heme group, which contains an iron atom that binds the oxygen. This subunit also contains the glutamic acid at position 6 that, when changed to valine, results in the sickle cell mutation. Other changes to the β-globin subunit may also result in disease.

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DNA Mini Model

The bottom section of this DNA double helix model shows a surface format emphasizing major and minor grooves. Details of the structure of DNA progressively emerge as the model thins, gradually revealing individual atoms in the middle section while highlighting nucleotide bases at the top.

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CRISPR/Cas9 Mini Model

The front segment of this model of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology detaches, allowing students a closer look at the guide RNA and two strands of DNA inside.

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Large and Small Ribosome Mini Models

The bacterial ribosome is a protein/RNA complex that functions in protein translation. Single-stranded mRNA feeds into the ribosome complex, where each 3-base codon is matched to its tRNA anticodons, and subsequent amino acids are strung together into a peptide chain.

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70S Ribosome Mini Model

This 3D structure shows the 2 subunits of the bacterial ribosome (30S and 50S) in the functional 70S ribosome. In the bound 70S conformation, the 3’-ends of the tRNAs are immediately adjacent to the catalytic adenosine in the large subunit. Different RNA domains are displayed in spacefill format and are colored many different colors.

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Transfer RNA Mini Models

Transfer RNAs (tRNA) deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where they join to a growing peptide chain during protein synthesis. Transfer RNAs fold into 3D structures, stabilized by hydrogen bonding between complementary bases. Individual amino acids are joined to the 3’-end of the tRNA. On the other side of the molecule is the anticodon.

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Antibody Mini Models

Antibodies recognize and bind to antigens, triggering a variety of immune responses that protect the cell from infection. They are composed of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains. Each heavy chain is composed of 4 immunoglobulin folds, which consists of 2 flat beta sheets held together by a covalent disulfide bond between 2 cysteine amino acids.

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Hemagglutinin Mini Model

The hemagglutinin protein (HA) of the influenza virus plays a critical role in the infection process. The virus binds to the cell and triggers receptor-mediated endocytosis. As a result of this endocytosis, the pH of the environment drops from pH 7 (outside the cell) to pH 5 (inside the endosome).

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Influenza Virus Capsule

Influenza is an RNA virus with a roughly spherical lipid envelope, which is colored yellow on our schematic model. The outside of the virus capsule is covered with three specific proteins: Hemagglutinin (purple), Neuraminidase (pink) and the M2 channel (blue). These three proteins are involved in virus docking, endocytosis and fusion of the viral membrane to the host cell. The specific types and combinations of the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on the surface of the virus capsule categorize the strain of the virus.

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Anthrax Protective Antigen Mini Model

The anthrax protective antigen (PA), the lethal factor (LF), and the edema (OF) factor make up the anthrax toxin secreted by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax protective antigen is a complex made up of 7 identical subunits, which assemble into a ring to embed itself into the cell membrane and create a pore, allowing the other 2 anthrax proteins to enter the cell.

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Adenosine Triphosphate Mini Model

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the universal currency of energy. The model is based on the atomic coordinates of this important nucleotide. Both the second and third phosphates are joined to the model with magnets – allowing students to easily move from AMP (adenosine monophosphate) to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and ATP. This simple model will change the way your students think about glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

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Alpha Helix - Beta Sheet Construction Kit©

Regions of the linear polypeptide chain fold into the stable α-helix and β-sheet structures to form the protein secondary structure. The tertiary protein structure is the overall 3D shape of the protein. With this magnetic model collection, students can assemble an α-helix or anti-parallel β-sheet and compare the phi-psi angles of the 2 secondary structures.

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Neurotransmitters Module

California twins Noah and Alexis Beery have gene variants that cause them to have life-threatening low levels of three neurotransmitters. Whole genome sequencing in 2010 identified a mutation in the gene that encodes the sepiapterin reductase enzyme, leading to a molecular diagnosis and successful treatment.

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